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Esophageal tumors


Esophageal cancer is cancer that occurs in the esophagus, the long hollow tube that runs from your throat to your stomach. Cancers within the esophagus occur when the cells within the esophagus mutate and grow uncontrollably. Esophageal cancer is the eighth most frequently diagnosed cancer, and it is the sixth most common cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. It predominantly occurs in men, with 7.7 men per 100,000 being diagnosed vs. 2.8 per 100,000 women. 

There are two major types of esophageal cancer: squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) which comprises 60–70% of all cases worldwide, and adenocarcinoma (AC) which accounts for another 20–30%. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent esophageal cancer worldwide. The main risk factors for SCC include smoking tobacco, consuming alcohol in excess, drinking very hot drinks, having a poor diet and not eating enough fruits and vegetables, and chewing betel nuts. The main risk factors for AC are smoking tobacco, maintaining an unhealthy diet, being obese, and having gastroesophageal acid reflux (GERD).


Esophageal cancer typically does not cause any notable symptoms until the cancer has invaded over 60% of the esophageal tube. The first symptoms you may notice are usually caused by the narrowing of the esophageal tube due to the presence of the tumor. These include difficulty in swallowing, pain during swallowing or unexplained weight loss. If your doctor suspects esophageal cancer after a physical examination, they may recommend a biopsy be collected during an esophagogastroscopy and an ultrasound examination. Once the biopsy is collected, the GMI Department of Pathology will test it microscopically to define what type of esophageal cancer is present (SCC vs. AC), and to analyze its molecular markers (for example: Her2/neu score). These investigations guide your medical team in determining which treatment is best suited to your case.  To assess the potential spread of the cancer, your GMI medical team may recommend further imaging. The GMI offers the most advanced medical imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET / CT).


Like other types of cancer, treatment varies greatly depending on the type of esophageal cancer, the tumor size, location, and characteristics, as well as how the cancer has progressed. Every step in the diagnostic procedure helps the GMI team tailor each treatment plan to each patient, taking into consideration your individual case and personal preferences. To determine the best course of action each patient’s case is discussed in a multidisciplinary tumor board where several experts from our team come together to create your comprehensive treatment plan. For cases where the cancer remains localized, a dedicated team of surgeons will eradicate the tumor using the most modern treatment options, including surgery, and in some cases radiotherapy and chemotherapy. For cases where the cancer is at a more advanced stage, our Medical Oncology team will propose the best treatment plan for each patient, which will include the newest regimen of systemic therapies like targeted therapy, chemotherapy and / or immunotherapy.


At the GMI German Oncology Center, a dedicated team of internationally acclaimed physicians guides each esophageal cancer patient through their entire journey, from their diagnostic work-up to their treatment and post-treatment care.
The GMI team will never offer a simple “one size fits all” approach to any patient. We believe each patient’s case is as individual as they are and strive to find the best solution for each of our patients, taking their specific case and diagnosis, their lifestyle, and choices into account.
We believe each of our patients is more than their diagnosis. That’s why our dedicated paramedics team supports esophageal cancer patients on their journey by offering more than just expert medical care. We offer psychological help, integrative oncology services (including yoga classes, and acupuncture) and have a GMI Patient Advocacy Program. We also have a team of nutrition specialists ready to advise each patient individually in cases where you may be struggling with swallowing.
Adhering to our passion for innovation, and desire to progress the medical field, the GMI German Oncology Center both initiates and participates in several clinical trials in which the most modern and advanced treatment concepts are tested.

24-hour Emergency Helpline

(+357) 25 208 000

Emergencies are not yet accredited of the General Health Care System

(+357) 25 208 000

Emergencies are not yet accredited of the General Health Care System.


Dr. Aris Angouridis

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