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Hemorrhoids are a normal anatomical feature of the anal area. They are essentially blood vessels that carry blood to the anus. They form a cluster of vessels called the ‘hemorrhoidal plexus’. Together with the overlying skin they form protective cushions in the area where the anal sphincter is found. During defecation, with the relaxation of the anal sphincter, the plexus is emptied of blood and refilled after the end of this function. Thus, hemorrhoids, to some extent, aid the anal sphincter in closing the anus. Hemorrhoidal disease is common and affects an exceptionally large part of the population.


Hemorrhoids are divided into internal and external.

Internal hemorrhoids are classified into 4 stages depending on their severity. 

Stage 1: The hemorrhoids do not prolapse but may bleed.

Stage 2: The hemorrhoids prolapse but they automatically reduce into the anal canal.

Stage 3: The hemorrhoids prolapse and are only reduced manually.

Stage 4: The hemorrhoids prolapse permanently and do not reduce.

The symptoms of hemorrhoids usually depend on the type of hemorrhoid and include pain in the anal area, bleeding, mucus secretion, local irritation, and itching.

Constipation is one of the main causes of hemorrhoids. Constipation is often hereditary or caused by a diet that is deficient in fiber. Another cause that contributes to the occurrence of hemorrhoids is pregnancy, where the hemorrhoids usually shrink after pregnancy. Increased age and sitting for long periods of time on the toilet, for example reading, also increase your risk of developing hemorrhoids.


To diagnose hemorrhoids, your doctor will ask you about your symptom history and review the area. In addition, they may recommend a digital examination, rectosigmoidoscopy or rectoscopy which can guide the diagnosis.


In the early stages, hemorrhoids may be treated conservatively by managing your constipation. The simplest ways to do this are to increase fiber and water in your diet.

In stage 1 hemorrhoids, an infusion with sclerosing agents can be done.

In stage 1-2 elastic bands can be applied to strangle the hemorrhoids, which become ischemic.  Placement can be done under local anesthesia. 

In more advanced stages (3-4) surgery is the most appropriate treatment method.

Interventions include excision of the hemorrhoids and hemorrhoidal coagulation using various techniques.


At the GMI, our medical team of internationally acclaimed physicians guide each patient through their entire journey, from their diagnostic work-up to their treatment and post-treatment care. Our patients will partner with physicians and surgeons who specialize in diagnosing and treating hemorrhoids. The GMI team will never offer a simple “one size fits all” approach to any patient. We believe each patient’s case is as individual as they are and strive to find the best solution for each of our patients, taking their specific case and diagnosis, their lifestyle, and choices into account.
We believe each of our patients is more than their diagnosis. That’s why our dedicated paramedics team supports our patients by offering more than just expert medical care. We offer psychological help, integrative services (including yoga classes, and acupuncture) and have a GMI Patient Advocacy Program.
Adhering to our passion for innovation, and desire to progress the medical field, the GMI both initiates and participates in several clinical trials in which the most modern and advanced treatment concepts are tested.

24-hour Emergency Helpline

(+357) 25 208 000

Emergencies are not yet accredited of the General Health Care System

(+357) 25 208 000

Emergencies are not yet accredited of the General Health Care System.


Dr. Aris Angouridis

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