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Multiple Myeloma


The plasma cells of the human body are the origin of Multiple Myeloma. Physiologically, plasma cells are a part the immune system. Their location is within the bone marrow – the spongy interior of human bones that produces blood cells. In case of a multiple myeloma, a plasma cell becomes cancerous and it multiplies rapidly. Globally, approximately 500,000 people are diagnosed each year with multiple myeloma, and approximately 100,000 deaths per year are attributed to this type of cancer. Multiple myeloma usually occurs around the age of 60 and is more common in men. Known risk factors are having a personal history of a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the so-called smoldering myeloma, a past Epstein-Barr Virus infection, and obesity.


Signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary greatly as many organs are often affected. The most common symptoms are fatigue and bone pain, especially in your spine or chest. The CRAB criteria are used to define the most common signs of multiple myeloma: elevated serum calcium, renal insufficiency, anemia (low level of red blood cells), and bone lesions. These bone lesions, also called osteolytic lesions, are detected through a skeletal radiography, computed tomography (CT), or positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET / CT). Also, you may experience neurological symptoms like headaches and loss of bowel control. You may also notice you’re feeling unwell and fighting infections frequently. If you’re experiencing any of these signs and symptoms, consult our specialists to determine the best course of action. The first step of the diagnostic work-up is a blood and an urine test, where your medical team will be looking for elevated levels of certain proteins (immunoglobulins). These proteins, when produced by the cancerous plasma cells, appear at higher than normal levels. Additionally, your medical team may recommend a bone marrow biopsy, where a sample of bone marrow is removed for laboratory testing. This sample is then examined to evaluate the level of cancerous plasma cells in the bone marrow. Finally, to better assess the spread of the multiple myeloma in the bones, your doctor may recommend full-body imaging, usually as a computed tomography (CT), or positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET / CT)


Like other types of cancer, treatment varies greatly depending on how the multiple myeloma has progressed. Every step in the diagnostic procedure helps the GMI team tailor each treatment plan to each patient, taking into consideration your individual case and personal preferences. To determine the best course of action each patient’s case is discussed in a multidisciplinary tumor board where several experts from our team come together to create your comprehensive treatment plan.  The main treatment options for multiple myeloma are chemotherapy and / or bone marrow transplant. Sometimes radiotherapy or surgery may be used to address painful or unstable bone lesions. 


At the GMI German Oncology Center, a dedicated team of internationally acclaimed physicians guides each multiple myeloma patient through their entire journey, from their diagnostic work-up to their treatment and post-treatment care. From 2023, the GMI also offers the only autologous bone marrow transplant unit in Cyprus, where bone marrow is transferred directly from another person. If patients experience kidney problems or kidney failure, the dedicated GMI Hemodialysis and Nephrology team is here to support each patient.
The GMI team will never offer a simple “one size fits all” approach to any patient. We believe each patient’s case is as individual as they are and strive to find the best solution for each of our patients, taking their specific case and diagnosis, their lifestyle, and choices into account.
We believe each of our patients is more than their diagnosis. That’s why our dedicated paramedics team supports multiple myeloma patients on their journey by offering more than just expert medical care. We offer psychological help, integrative oncology services (including yoga classes, and acupuncture) and have a GMI Patient Advocacy Program.
Adhering to our passion for innovation, and desire to progress the medical field, the GMI German Oncology Center both initiates and participates in several clinical trials in which the most modern and advanced treatment concepts are tested.

24-hour Emergency Helpline

(+357) 25 208 000

Emergencies are not yet accredited of the General Health Care System

(+357) 25 208 000

Emergencies are not yet accredited of the General Health Care System.


Dr. Aris Angouridis

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