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Thyroid Gland


The thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland located at the base of your neck. It is made up of two lobes which are connected by the thyroid isthmus. It produces hormones that regulate your heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, weight, and metabolism (T3 and T4). Hyperthyroidism occurs when a thyroid gland produces too much of certain hormones. In cases of hypothyroidism, your thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough of certain hormones.


Goiter is the swelling of the thyroid gland, which you may easily notice as a swelling in the neck. It may be accompanied by hyper or hypothyroidism. In the past, the most common cause was iodine deficiency. Some goiters compress other organs in the neck and may be treated by thyroidectomy. If the goiter is small and doesn’t cause problems, treatment may not be necessary. Usually, goiters also contain nodular formations called thyroid nodules.

Thyroid nodules

Thyroid nodules are one or more solid or fluid-filled lumps within your thyroid that have a different structure to the rest of the gland. They are created by thyroid hyperplasia. Once they are diagnosed, your medical team will determine if they are active or inactive, through a scintigraphy, and whether they ‘hide’ a malignancy, through a percutaneous puncture and biopsy. If your medical team determines the nodules are malignant or if there are multiple nodules that are difficult to control, surgery is recommended.

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is relatively rare (1% of all cancers) but it is the most common cancer of the endocrine glands. There are 4 types: papillary, which is the most common, follicular, myeloid, and anaplastic.

Parathyroid glands

There are usually four parathyroid glands located at the back of the thyroid. They produce parathyroid hormone which is responsible for metabolizing calcium in the body. The parathyroid glands are surgically removed in cases of adenoma, hyperplasia, or carcinoma. This surgical approach is similar to a thyroidectomy.


Symptoms for patients with thyroid disease vary greatly depending on the specific condition. In hyperthyroidism, patients experience unexplained weight loss, have insomnia, high blood pressure and feel hot. In hypothyroidism, patients experience drowsiness, lethargy, weight gain and usually feel cold.  When there is an overproduction of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands (hyperparathyroidism), patients may have a tendency to vomit, and experience nausea, muscle weakness, bone pain, spontaneous fractures, kidney colic, nephrolithiasis, or even have neurotic and psychotic manifestations. Causes of thyroid diseases vary depending on the specific condition and patient, but include iodine deficiency, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, genetic disorders, and some medical therapies including radiotherapy and drugs.

Diagnosis is made through blood tests, such as those that evaluate thyroid hormone levels, antibodies and calcium in the blood and urine. Ultrasound scans and / or computed tomography (CT) scans and scintigraphy may also guide the diagnosis.


Most thyroid conditions can be treated with appropriate medication and through monitoring by an endocrinologist. Depending on the specific case, either the entire thyroid (total thyroidectomy) or part of it (subtotal thyroidectomy or lobectomy) may need to be removed.


At the GMI Thyroid Center, a multidisciplinary team of internationally acclaimed physicians guide each patient through their entire journey, from their diagnostic work-up to their treatment and post-treatment care. Our patients will partner with internationally recognized surgeons who specialize in diagnosing and treating these diseases, and who are trained in the latest medical treatments, with excellent results, and who work with state-of-the-art equipment in brand new operating rooms.
The GMI team will never offer a simple “one size fits all” approach to any patient. We believe each patient’s case is as individual as they are and strive to find the best solution for each of our patients, taking their specific case and diagnosis, their lifestyle, and choices into account.
We believe each of our patients is more than their diagnosis. That’s why our dedicated paramedics team supports patients with thyroid diseases by offering more than just expert medical care. We offer psychological help, integrative medical services (including yoga classes, and acupuncture) and have a GMI Patient Advocacy Program.
Adhering to our passion for innovation, and desire to progress the medical field, the GMI Thyroid Center both initiates and participates in several clinical trials in which the most modern and advanced treatment concepts are tested.

24-hour Emergency Helpline

(+357) 25 208 000

Emergencies are not yet accredited of the General Health Care System

(+357) 25 208 000

Emergencies are not yet accredited of the General Health Care System.


Dr. Aris Angouridis

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